Sound in a Jar by Ronald Boersen

speaker jar microphones
Different microphones are used to pick up the sound from the small loudspeaker in the jar. © Ronald Boersen

In Sound in a Jar (2016) by Ronald Boersen three performers— Ronald Boersen himself, Dganit Elyakim and Hadas Pe’ery—move three different microphones back and forwards to a very small loudspeaker placed in a jar. As Ronald explained me, this piece is a sound environment, which changes and developes algorithmically during the performance. The main task for the performers during the rehearsals is to explore this environment and find ways to engage musically with the sounds they can produce. The performers pick up the sounds of the loudspeaker in the small jar and it is sent back to the loudspeaker again, passing through a Max patch. By placing the loudspeaker in a jar, the sound will resonate easier, a very suitable feature for acoustic feedback. The main sound of the performance is thus acoustic feedback, coloured by the different characteristics of the three microphones used (two different condenser and a dynamic microphone).

microphones loudspeakers max msp
This scheme gives an overview of the inputs and outputs of the piece, as well as the three forms of live processing used, in form of a Max patch. © Ronald Boersen

The Max patch processes this feedback sound: as the scheme depicts, Ronald uses threshold triggered reverb pulses, feedback interval driven harmonisation and granular delay lines. By using amplitude thresholds and feedback frequencies these processes are directly influenced by the feedback sound itself, and the feedback itself is processed by the Max patch. In this manner Sound in a Jar uses a double form of feedback: acoustic feedback (using the sound itself) and data feedback (by using data streams generated from amplitude and frequency analyses of the loudspeaker sound, without using the sound itself), and both are effecting each other constantly. How much the sound of each microphone is processed by Max and which of the three processes is used (reverb pulses, harmonisation or granular delay) is changing during the piece, as is depicted in the diagram in the score. The relationships between microphone, processing and loudspeaker change not only accordingly to the distance between microphone and loudspeaker but also because of the temporal development of the kind of sound processing in the Max patch.

In this close-up video the development in sound processing and the direct relationship between the movements of the microphones and the resulting sound can easily be followed:

A very appealing aspect of this set-up is in my view, is that all three microphone signals are connected to a single loudspeaker. All three players have to find their own way of playing, because they have a different type of microphone and their sound is processed in a different way, but at the same time all these different paths come together again in a small loudspeaker in a jar. In the second part of the performance the sound of the small loudspeaker is slowly also diffused through the bigger loudspeakers in the hall (the PA loudspeakers). This does not cause any noticeable change in the acoustic feedback interaction, but the spatial and spectral characteristics do change due to the different in placement, sound diffusion and spectral response of these loudspeakers. The sound of the jar itself seems to fill the whole performance space now, instead of occupying a single spot. At the end of the piece, the loudspeakers in the hall fade out again and the sound moves back into the jar.

By preparing this text I also discovered that Ronald Boersen has an interactive sound installation, that uses loudspeakers and ping pong balls. I added this to the collection of fifty years of loudspeakers and ping pong balls.

And here a recording of the whole piece:

 

Transducer by Robin Fox and Eugene Ughetti

microphone swinging loudspeakers
Eugene Ughetti swings a microphone above his head, whilst three other Speak Percussion members are holding loudspeakers. Video still © Robin Fox & Eugene Ughetti

In Transducer (2013) you might easily recognise all kinds of “classical” playing techniques for microphones and loudspeakers, twisted in surprising and clever ways. This results in a performance which reinvents and expands known pieces such as Steve Reich’s Pendulum Music, Karlheinz Stockhausen’s Mikrophonie I or Gordon Monahan’s Speaker Swinging into unexplored territories. Robin Fox and Eugene Ughetti composed this piece for Speak Percussion (Eugene Ughetti, Matthias Schack-Arnott and Leah Scholes, and guest percussionist Louise Devenish are on stage).

As the title Transducer already implies, this piece is focusing on so-called  transducers: devices that transform one form of energy to another, a category microphones and loudspeakers belong to. The piece starts with a scene which reminds me of the swinging loudspeakers in Gordon Monahan’s Speaker SwingingBut this time a microphone circulates above Eugene’s head, and is, for example, picking up sounds diffused by loudspeakers carried around by  other performers:

One of the main elements on stage is an array of eight microphones hanging above eight small loudspeakers, which remembers us of Steve Reich’s Pendulum Music. Although clearly inspired from the swinging microphones used by Steve Reich, this pendulum-array—containing more and smaller pendulumsis played in a different way, or more accurately: in many different ways. Reich’s Pendulum Music is process-based and acoustic feedback is its sole sound. After releasing the microphones the performers do not interfere anymore with the swinging microphones. The performance is finished as soon as the microphones are hanging stationary above the loudspeakers.

Pendulum Music, Transducer
Eight pendulums of microphones and loudspeakers are played in many different ways during Transducer. Video still © Robin Fox & Eugene Ughetti

In Transducer Robin and Eugene develop an instrumental set-up with the pendulums, which produce many different sounds such as clicks, sine waves or noise. These different type of sounds are generated with the help of patches programmed in the software Max. The pendulums in Transducer also do not feedback acoustically, but the swinging microphones amplify the sound coming from the loudspeakers underneath them in pulses: the closer the microphone moves to the loudspeaker the louder the sound gets. The signals of the microphones can be amplified through eight bigger loudspeakers placed around the audience.

audience PA
Eight loudspeakers and two subwoofers are placed around the audience during Transducer. (Many other loudspeakers and microphones are placed on stage, see the schedule below for their placement). © Robin Fox & Eugene Ughetti
circuit overview Transducer
This is an overview of all equipment involved during Transducer. (Only the  eight channel loudspeakers placed around the audience are not on this scheme). © Robin Fox & Eugene Ughetti

The whole set-up for Transducer contains many different kinds of microphones and loudspeakers, and therefore a huge amount of possibilities for combining these. Besides the elements mentioned earlier, there are four different tables, all focusing on a specific topic of playing microphones and loudspeakers. On the Textured Table different surfaces are triggering a contact microphone to obtain musical material and have it feeding back through other loudspeakers and microphones. On the Speaker Table a loudspeaker is placed, which membrane moves other objects (including some ping pong balls!), and in fact is acting as a percussionist. The third table is the so-called Mic on Mic table, on which a microphone is amplifying another microphone, which itself is not amplified. The Electromagnetic Table creates sounds with the use of an induction coil and a pulled-open computer.

contact microphone surface
The Textured Table: using  a contact microphone for amplifying several kinds of surfaces. Video still © Robin Fox & Eugene Ughetti
two microphones amplification
The Mic on Mic Table: a microphone is amplifying another microphone, which itself is not amplified. Video still © Robin Fox & Eugene Ughetti

The piece ends with acoustic feedback: Eugene Ughetti approaches two loudspeakers with a microphone. In between them a big tam-tam is placed and starts to resonate according to the frequencies diffused by the loudspeakers placed right behind it. The acoustic feedback is coloured by the resonances of the tam-tam and by moving the microphone close to the tam-tam changes in resonances can be picked up. This might remind you of another well-known composition for microphones as musical instruments. And indeed, the second part of this Speak Percussion concert continues with Mikrophonie I by Karlheinz Stockhausen.

acoustic feedback tam-tam
In this acoustic feedback set-up a tam-tam is placed between microphone and loudspeakers. Video still © Robin Fox & Eugene Ughetti

The whole documentation video of Transducer can be viewed here:

Klangflug by Lara Stanic

Lara Stanic Klangflug flying loudspeakers
Lara Stanic performs Klangflug. © Lara Stanic

In her performance Klangflug (2006 – 2013, several versions) Lara Stanic looks for ways to transmit the airiness and volatility of sound itself to the heavy loudspeakers, needed to produce sounds. By simulating sounds of an airplane taking off on her flute, she sets the loudspeakers free and they start to travel through the air. The result are flying loudspeakers.

This is done by attaching four big helium balloons to four loudspeakers. Lara puts sugar on top of the loudspeakers to keep them on the floor. She starts to play glissandi on her flute now, simulating airplane departure noises. These glissandi are picked up by a microphone and sent to a computer software (a Max-patch), using pitch shifter to  transpose and enlarge the glissandi.  These sounds are diffused through the four loudspeakers with sugar on top. As can be seen in this short demonstration movie, at certain frequencies, especially low ones, the movements of the loudspeaker membrane cause the sugar to fall off. The helium balloon will now ascend into the air, taking the loudspeaker with it:

During the performance the pitch shifters prolong Lara’s glissandi on the flute more and more, enlarging the possible glissando range of the flute. Lara explained to me, that the balance of the weight of the sugar piles, big enough helium balloons and right pitches on the flute is very delicate. The amount of time it takes to free each loudspeaker is variable for each performance, and the height of their flight is depending on how much sugar is left on the loudspeaker. When I attended this performance, exactly this unpredictability was so fascinating: the big balloons and the rising pitches built up the tension, whereas the final taking off of a loudspeaker always came as a surprise.

The movement of the loudspeakers is only visually perceivable in the movie documenting the performance. Evidently, when hearing this performance live, an important aspect is also the upwards movement of the sound. (And if you are curious why sugar is used: I asked Lara and she told me it was just a result of trial and error with different kinds of sand, sugar and other material.)

Lara has created many works for microphones and loudspeakers, another example is Open Air Bach. Other artists have focused not so much on the taking off, but especially on the flight itself of loudspeakers. Works by Lucio Capece, Fabrice Moinet and Genoel Lilienstern are interesting examples (and I will write about these works in the future ).

An active loudspeaker by Hermann Scherchen

The rotating loudspeaker ball with 32 loudspeakers developed by Hermann Scherchen (source http://www.studiodabbeni.ch/exhibitions/20/hermann-scherchen:-alles-hörbar-machen-i).

Due to his intensive occupation with recording and reproduction of music the conductor Hermann Scherchen (1891-1966)  became aware of the enormous increment of people listening to music through loudspeakers. He was concerned about the difference between the complex sound diffusion during a concert by the whole orchestra and the very poor representation of the music through one loudspeaker (at that time sound diffusion was often still mono). Scherchen aimed for a recording to sound as if performed in the (acoustic) space, in which it was reproduced and in which the listener of the recording was present. To achieve this, loudspeakers should diffuse sound in such a way, that they “trigger” the acoustics of the space. The recording is not anymore a reproduction of a musical event, which had happened in another space and another time, but the recording now becomes a musical event in itself, sounding as if the orchestra plays in your living room.

To achieve this effect, Scherchen invented a rotating loudspeaker ball, or, as it was called by him, „Der aktive Lautsprecher“ (the active loudspeaker). Scherchen looked for an alternative for stereophonic reproduction, which in his opinion could not reproduce the sound perception in a space. The rotating loudspeaker ball was developed to distribute the sound in such a way, that each member of the public would sit inside the „sweet spot“ or actually no sweet spot was existing anymore. This loudspeaker was developed in 1959 and consisted of 32 speakers (215 mm diameter) placed on a 70 cm ball. The weight of the whole construction was 150 kilogram. This ball was placed on a stand and able to rotate in all directions. The music played on this loudspeaker ball was not experimental at all, but for example J.S.Bach’s St. Matthew Passion. (I would love to experiment with these loudspeakers though!)

I only have a very bad picture but apparently listening to this loudspeaker was also done outside (in Gravesano, Switzerland, where Scherchen lived). In the second picture you can see the loudspeaker ball in the middle and the audience sitting around:

A beautiful documentation of an exhibition on Herrmann Scherchen’s electroacoustic research has been made by Luca Frei. Bruno Spoerri wrote a detailed history on Scherahen’s studio in Gravesend (see the article Hermann Scherchen und das Experimentalstudio Gravesano (1954–1966) in the book Musik aus dem nichts).

In this video the loudspeaker ball can be seen in rotation (the music heard in the video seems not to be diffused by the loudspeaker ball though):

 

More information on this loudspeaker ball can be found in the archive of the Akademie der Künste Berlin and in several volumes of the Gravesaner Blätter:

“Fünf Jahre Gravesano“ (1954 – 1959) in: Gravesaner Blätter No. XIV Volume IV 1959 p. 2.

Technical aspects at the Fifth Anniversary of Gravesano, F. A. Loescher, Gravesaner Blätter No. XV/XVI Vol. IV 1960, p. 6 – 7

Annea Lockwood’s loudspeaker ball  also diffuses monophonic sound through many loudspeakers.