Loudspeakeroperas by Huba de Graaff

Huba de Graaff's opera Lautsprecher Arnolt
Several of the loudspeaker sculptures used in Huba de Graaff’s opera Lautsprecher Arnolt. © Huba de Graaff

In her opera Lautsprecher Arnolt (2004) Huba de Graaff decided to have most roles played by loudspeakers. Only the main character—the writer Arnolt Bronnen (1895-1959)—is played by a human actor, Marien Jongewaard. Arnolt himself is literally a  “loud speaker”, screaming and provoking the kinetic loudspeaker sculptures. Arnolt often changes his policitical orientation, depending of what seemed to be the most advantageous at that time, similar to how loudspeakers can reproduce all kinds of sounds and do not have to choose one direction. The loudspeaker sculptures in their turn are all humanised. They are constructed by Bart Visser and can often move and play the characters of, for example, Bertolt Brecht (a very long thin and vibrating loudspeaker), Joseph Goebbels (a long column of loudspeakers, which can grow higher and shorter)  and Arnolt Bronnen’s wife Olga Förster-Prowe (two loudspeakers in the form of a bra). The piece is set during the first half of the twentieth century. During that time the loudspeaker was developed and became suitable for mass communication and soon after used in Nazi Germany for dissemination of their propaganda.

Marien Jongewaard next to the column loudspeaker Joseph Goebbels, in its shortest form.
Marien Jongewaard next to the loudspeaker column Joseph Goebbels, in its shortest form. © Huba de Graaff
Speaker opera Goebbels
The loudspeaker column Joseph Goebbels can increase in length (compare it’s length with the picture above). © Huba de Graaff

As Huba explains in her text about loudspeakers and sound systems, she considers the loudspeaker as the real instrument of electronic music. For this reason it is essential for her that loudspeakers become moving objects on stage. In this way a physical connection between sound and movement is created and the speakers become a sound source which is moving when it is sounding (similar to instrumentalists playing their instrument). A typical example of such moving loudspeakers are the so-called AATs, an abbreviation of Addressable Audio Transducers. These are rotating loudspeakers derived from Leslie loudspeaker cabinets produced by Yamaha. Huba transformed them in such a way that their movements are controllable by MIDI. Here they speak in German on loudspeakers as instruments:

Except the often historic voice recordings and some texts by the director of the piece Erik-Ward Geerlings,  most of the sounds diffused through the loudspeakers are sounds which can not exist without loudspeakers: sine waves, all kinds of other synthesised sounds, hammond organ, electric guitar, but also the characteristic mostly unwished hum of sound amplification systems and of course acoustic feedback.

Huba de Graaff composed several other works with loudspeakers, one of them is the opera Hephaistos (1997), for 40 loudspeakers, robotspeakers, computercontrolled moving loudspeakers, three singers and computers. Also in this opera the loudspeakers are part of the scenery, as for example the singers are wearing loudspeaker heads.

loudspeaker hats Huba de Graaff
The two actresses in Huba de Graaff’s opera Hephaistos are wearing loudspeaker hats. © Huba de Graaff.

An earlier piece is Corenicken (1990). Although not called opera, this is again a large scale work, using many different sound sources and performed by Huba on violin and a percussion player. The audience is surrounded by all kinds of loudspeakers and also visual media such as small televisions. Huba herself wears her “Japon Fuzz”, a tin dress containing electronic equipment, so it can create “fuzzy” and feedback sounds in response to her movements. The piezo disks attached to the dress (see the second picture of the dress) pick up the sound of the dress. As soon as Huba approaches a loudspeaker, her amplified tin dress feedbacks with the loudspeaker:

Huba de Graaff loudspeaker dress
The “japon fuzz”, a tin dress with electronic equipment to create “fuzzy” and feedback sounds. © Huba de Graaff
dress with speakers
A close up of the Japon Fuzz, using piezo disks to pick up sound. © Huba de Graaff

There are also two rotating loudspeakers (similar to the AATs mentioned above) on stage and an enormous amount of piezo ceramic elements is hanging above the audience. Together they form three grids, containing each 256 piezo disks (a total of 768!). Huba developed a computer software to control pulse-trains send to these disks, resulting in moving soundscapes. Every piezo disk is prepared with a piece of thick aluminium foil, so it diffuses its sound louder. Wonderful clouds of small sounds are moving above the audience:

Huba de Graaff Piezo grids 768 piezo ceramic elements
Setting up for Huba de Graaff’s Corenicken: the audience is placed around the stage. Three grids containing 768 piezo disks prepared with aluminium foil are hanging above the audience. © Huba de Graaff

Huba considers stereophonic sound as used in hifi-systems for the living room or in concert hall amplification as a strange and flat reproduction of reality. Sound loses its depth and perspective when reproduced by such systems. A common P.A. system (a public address system used for sound amplification in all kinds of situations, such as concert halls, theatres, and stadiums) creates a distance between the audience and the creators. In works such as Corenicken Huba is looking for a what she calls an I.A. system (individual address), as opposed to the common P.A. system. Every audience member is surrounded in a different way by loudspeakers. And indeed each of her imaginative loudspeaker sculptures diffuses its sound in an individual way.

Huba is currently working on a new piece for the AAT loudspeakers, which will be premiered soon. I’ll keep you posted.

Speaker Dress by Pauchi Sasaki

speaker dress Pauchi Sasaki
Pauchi Sasaki wears her Speaker Dress (2014), containing 96 loudspeakers. Photo by Juan Pablo Aragon. © Pauchi Sasaki

Our clothes can be seen as a form of communication between ourselves and the outside world. They give a visual impression of who we are and how we would like to be seen by others. Pauchi Sasaki designs dresses which are not only visible, but transmit sonic xterial as well. These dresses consists of around 100 loudspeakers, and are able to process sound live.

Pauchi got the idea for developing sonic costumes, when she performed in a temple in Lima. As she remembers: “But of course, it’s an ancient temple, so there was no electricity or outlets; I could perform only acoustic sounds, even though that’s not what I had planned. That’s when I got the idea of a self-contained system, but one that could be integrated into my body, that was the idea” (interview by Michael Barron).

The result was developed in 2014 and is simply called Speaker Dress. It is a self designed wearable sound sculpture. Two dresses exist nowadays, a black and a white one. The black one contains 96 loudspeakers, the white one even 125. Several loudspeakers are connected to the same amplifier channel. The black dress for example contains six channels of amplification, resulting in 16 loudspeakers per channel, and in six different sonic zones on the dress (a zone is formed by the loudspeakers diffusing the same sound).

Pauchi Sasaki Speaker Dress
Pauchi Sasaki in performance with her Speaker Dress. Photo by Janice Smith-Palliser. © Pauchi Sasaki

The performer can choose from different input possibilities: a contact microphone, a lavalier microphone and an mp3 player are connected. These signals are sent wireless to a computer, which processes the sound in the music software Max. The sound is sent back to the dress again and is diffused by the loudspeakers.

This is a short video made during a sound check for the Ojai Music Festival made by sound engineer Nick Tipp. Pauchi is testing the dress and walks through the auditorium:

All kind of live sounds made by the performers can be processed live during the concert and the transformed version is sounding through the dresses. Flutist Claire Chase and Pauchi herself, who is a violinist as well, use their breath, their voices and their instruments in the first composition Pauchi composed for  two dresses: Gama XV (2016). The performers are dressed in their own sounds, transformed by live electronics:

Speaker Feedback Instruments by Lesley Flanigan

Lesley Flanigan Speaker Feedback Instruments
Lesley Flanigan performing with her speaker feedback instruments at La Sala. © Lesley Flanigan

A beautiful example of combining acoustic feedback and musical instruments are the speaker feedback instruments by Lesley Flanigan.  What makes the technology of these instruments exceptional, is their use of so-called contact microphones (simple piezo-ceramic elements) instead of a microphone designed for picking up air pressure waves. These microphones  can easily amplify the mechanical vibrations of objects such as the sound board of a piano, an apple box, or a coffee cooker, without picking up the sonic vibrations of the air surrounding these objects. Or, simply speaking, when a contact microphone is connected to a table, and you are hitting the table and singing at the same time, the contact microphone will only amplify your voice.

In Lesley’s instruments though, these piezo-ceramic contact microphones are placed above the loudspeaker cone, without touching it. Surprisingly, they are in this case used for picking up air pressure vibrations. And indeed, feedback happens with this set-up because the air pressure waves emitted by the loudspeaker are strong enough to be picked up by the piezo-ceramic element and send back to the loudspeaker.  Due to their materiality the frequency response of these piezo-ceramic microphones will filter the sound quite heavily, and it is possible to create a very variable feedback sounds in just changing the distance between microphone and loudspeaker slightly. She discovered this set-up when trying out an amplifier:

I had built a small amplifying circuit, and to test it, I grabbed a couple items that happened to be on my table: a raw speaker cone for the output and a piezo element (basically, a microphone) for the input. The speaker and piezo were touching each other, and a very complex, tonal noise of feedback occurred (Lesley Flanagan in an interview by Tyler Miller).

contact microphone piezo ceramic speaker feedback
A piezo-ceramic element (often called contact microphone) is placed above the loudspeaker cone. © Lesley Flanigan

Since 2007 she has developed several of these speaker feedback instruments, and a speaker synth, which contains of five small different loudspeakers. Lesley told me, that she changes the set ups depending on what she feel works best for the show she is doing (or how far she needs to travel!), but definitely she has her favorites and tend to prefer playing with four at a time.

What inspired her, was that “The sounds of feedback they generated were so “real”—it was electronic sound that I could see and touch.” (Interview by Tyler Miller). It is especially this tactile element which becomes important in playing her instruments and developing her sounds. As can be seen from the video of the speaker synth both contact microphones and the membranes of the loudspeakers are touched to modify the feedback sounds. Each feedback circuit can be turned on and off, and a potentiometer next to the switch can be used for changing the feedback gain:

loudspeaker cones contact microphones
Several speaker feedback instruments made from very different loudspeaker cones taken out of old devices. © Lesley Flanigan

Her instruments are made from old loudspeakers. She is taking them out of devices, because she is interested in not finding a “perfect” loudspeaker but in the specific voice every loudspeaker has. When she heard these speaker feedback instruments “singing”, it felt just very natural for her to add her voice to them. In her performance set-up she literally shares her microphone with them, moving it from her mouth, to the speaker feedback instrument she wants to amplify through the PA system.

For me, it is a special process to collect their raw sounds with a microphone, and amplify them on a large scale. I love the moment when what was once a crusty little noise becomes a booming, warm bass swell of dense tonality. The sound itself never changed, but when amplified, its barely audible details are magnified, so we have the opportunity to hear it differently. By amplifying feedback tones, I’m trying to dig deeper and more introspectively into their sound (Lesley Flanagan in an interview by Rena Minegishi).

In these short fragments of her performances, you can recognise well how the sound of a speaker feedback instrument is amplified as soon as the microphone is approaching it:

As Lesley told me, also this bigger amplification system becomes a part of her instrumental set-up:  “I use a PA for amplification, but often like moving back and forth between the large PA amplified sound and the ‘acoustic’ sound of the feedback instruments without any amplification.” During her performances, she develops different layers of feedback and voice, using a looping pedal for sampling sounds. Whereas they are carefully prepared and rehearsed, and she clearly knows her instruments very well, she is always also reacting on what happens at each specific moment: “I knew which speakers to work with and how to play each one to bring out elements of tonality, noise and rhythm I wanted to hear. The sampling and layering of their sounds were intentionally obvious, methodical and dense. But with all that said, I could have never predicted the exact sounds that would come out of the process. Many variables effect the feedback I work with, so no matter how much control I have planned, improvisation is always at the forefront” (Lesley Flanigan in an interview by Marc Weidenbaum).

 

 

InPutOut by Ute Wassermann

Loudspeaker dress by Ute Wassermann with two microphones
Ute Wassermann performing with her loudspeaker dress in 1989.

Working with a similar principle as in Windy Gong Ute Wassermann developed a kind of loudspeaker dress , through which her voice was sounding (see both pictures above from 1989).

In 2015 she composed a new piece called InPutOut using these loudspeaker dresses for Les Femmes Savantes (Andrea Neumann, Sabine Ercklentz, Ana Marie Rodriguez and Ute Wassermann are performing). The performers wear a loudspeaker connected to a metal plate.

Loudspeakers prepared with metal plates for Ute Wassermann's InPutOut
Microphones and loudspeakers used in InPutOut (2015) by Ute Wassermann.

Each performer also holds two microphones: one to send the sound of the voice to the metal plate loudspeaker, the other one to amplify either the voice directly or the metal plate, which is excited by the voice. The signal of the second microphone is amplified through a small PA system. Holding both microphones in front of the metal plate, a feedback between microphone and metal plate loudspeaker occurs, amplified by the second microphone, which is connected to the PA system. A clear example of this feedback through the metal plate can be heard at 5’00” in the video documenting the piece. The microphone movements in this piece reveal fantastic possibilities of voice colouring, sometimes reminding me of  ventriloquism.